1. General Order No. 62, dated 28 June 1918, by The War Department.
2. Chemical Warfare Service, Edgewood Arsenal , General Order No. 15,
daced 12 October 1922.
i- Chemical Research and Development Laboratory Special Publication 2-51,
Evaluation of Medical Resea .ch Volunteer Program, published in 1962.
4. Chemical Corps Advisory Council, Medical and Related Problems Com-
mittee Meeting Minutes of 20-21 March 1953.
5. Office, Caief Chemical Warfare Service Officer, Order No. 48, dated
5 July 19*3.
6. Text of Testimony of Lieutenant General Taylor, The Surgeon General,
Department of the Army, to U.S. Senate, 94th Congress, 1st Session.
7. Section 10^ of the Act of 10 July 1950 (74 Statute 322; 5 USC, 235a).
8. Armed Forces Medical Policy Council Papers, "all 1952.
9. Secretary of Defense Memorandum for Secretary of the Army, Navy,
and Air Force, subject: Use of Human Volunteers in Experimental Research,
dated 2£ February 1953- "Vilson Memorandum."
10- Secretary of the Army Memorandum for Cnief- of Staff, Army, subject:
use of Human Volunteers in Experimental Research, dated 20 May 19 53.
11. Chief of Staff Memorandum through Assistant Chief of Staff, C— 4 ,
for Chief Chemical Officer and The Surgeon General, subject: Use of Volun-
teers in Research, dated 30 June 1953 (CS:385).
12. Commanding General, Chemical Research and Engineering Command, Letter,
subject: Use of Volunteers in Research, dated 24 July 1953-
13. 1st Indorsement to 12, above, dated 7 August 1953.
14. Secretary of the Amy Memorandum for Chief of Staff, Army, subject:
Use of Volunteers in Research, daced 5 November 1953.
15. Chief Chemical Officer Letter, subject: Use of Volunteers in Research,
to Commanding General, Chemical Corps Research and Engineering Command ,
daced 24 December 1953.
16- Secretary of th<: 'General S L -* f f Ncmor;imlutn, suhjert : Use of Volun-
teers in Research, dactd 16 October 195)3.
17. • Summary of Major Events and Problems for FY 56.
. 18. Headquarters, 2d Amy, Letter, subject: Recruitment of Human Volun-
teers, to Class I and II Installation Co^aancers, dated II April 1955.
19. Medical Research Laboratories Disposition Form prepared by the
Clinical Research Division, dated 8 March 1956.
20. Medical Research Laboratories Letter, subject: Additional Use of
Volunteers in Research, to Commanding General, Chemical Research and
Engineering Command, dated 7 September 1955.
21. Chemical Corps Research and Deveiopcenc Command Letter to Chief
Chs.-icai Officer, Department of che Army, subject: Additional use of
Volunteers in C Research, dated 22 March 1956.
22. Report of The Ad Hoc Study Group on Psychocheciicai Agents, published
19 November 1955.
23. Medical Research Laboratories Disposition Form, subject: ?BC 206/1
2U. Chemical Corps Research and Development Command Latter to Dr. Wolff,
dated January 1957.
25. Depucv Chief Chemical Officer for Scientific Activities Memorandum,
subject: LSD Patent Rights, Co Commander, Chemical Research and Develop-
ment Command, daced 3 February 1956.
26. Chic: Chemical Officer Letter to The Surgeon General, subject: Addi-
tional Use cf Volunteers in CV Research, dated April 1956.
2". The 5urgeon Ceneral Letter to Chief Chemical Officer, subject as 26,
srY.-c, dated 11* April 1956.
25. Director of research and Development Memorandum for Chief of Staff
of the Army, subject as 26, above, daced 17 May 1956.
29- Chemical Research and Development Command Letter to Chemical V.'arfare
Laboratories, subject as 26, above, daced 24 May 1956, •-ich Memorandum for
Reccrd by Dr. Sporn.
30. Informal conversations with Colonel Vogal (Retired), Dr. Sporn, Dr. K. C.
Emerson, Colonel Steed (Retired).
31. The Adjutant Geceral ot the Army Letter, subject: Use of Volunteers
in Research, to Commanding Generals of Zone of Interior (ZI) Armies, dated
18 April 1957.
32. Chief Chemical Officer Lecter to All Chemical Officers, subject:
Medical Research Volunteer Program, dated 11 July 1957.
33. Chemical Research and Development Command Lecter, subject: Additional
Use of Volunteers in Research, to Chief Chemical Officer, dated 20 May 1953
3"4. The Surgeon General Letter, subject: Addiriouai Use of Volunteers
in Chemical Warfare Research, to Chief Chemical Officer, dated 12 June 1953
35. Chief Chemical Officer Lecter, subject: Use of resale Volunteers, to
The Surgeon General, dated 14 November 1953 (forvarding request from
Chemical RAD Command, dated 4 November 1953).
36. Chemical Warfare Laboratories Internal Letter, subject: Use of Volun-
teers for Agent ZA. 1779 Tests, dated 10 February 1959.
37. Medical Research Laboratories Lecter, subject.: Appointment of Addi-
tional lespcnsible Physician, to Chief Chemical Officer, dated 4 November
38. Chemical Corps RAD Command Lecter to Commander, Chemical Warfare
Laboratories, subject: Use of Volunteers, dated 3 December 1953.
39. Chemical Corps S&D Command Lecter to Commander, Chemical Warfare
Laboratories , subject: Use of Volunteers, dated 15 December 1953.
40. Chemical Warfare Laboratories Letter to Director of Medical Research,
subject: Use of CV Agents on Volunteers, dated 23 December 1953.
41. Chemical Warfare Laboratories Lecter to Army Chemical R&D Command,
subject: Use of Volunteers in Tescing EA 1779 (CS) , dated 30 December
42. Chemical Warfare Laboratories Lecter, 27 July 1959, regarding
approved agents to be used en humans.
43. Summary Sheet, Chief Chemical Officer to Chemical Corps RAD Command,
proposed volunteer studies of cLA 1476 and related compounds, dated 30 July
44. Chemical Corps R&D Command Lecter to Chief Chemical Officer, subject:
Proposed Volunteer Studies of EA 1476, dated 17 July 1959.
45. Secretary ci the Army Memorandum for Chief of Scaff, subject: Use
of Volunteers la S-eaesrch, daced 8 October 1959.
46. Chemical Corps R&D Con— land Lecter to Commander, Chemical Warfare
Laboratories, daced 23 October 1959; Letter from Chemical Warfare Labora-
tories to Director, Medical Research Laboratory, daced 17 November 1959,
subject: Dse of Volunteers in Research.
47. Chemical Corps R&D Laboratories Letter to Commanding General, Chemi-
cal Command , subject: Experimental Exposures of Men to Propellent Vapors,
dated 2 August 1961.
43. Army Regulation 70-25, daced 26 March 1962, R&D Use of Volunteers as
Subjects of Research.
49. Chief of Research and Developmenc Memorandum to Chief Chemical Officer,
subject: Appointment of Physician in Charge of Volunteers, dated 20 April
50. The Judge Advocate General Memorandum regarding physical presence of
physician tn charge, dated 17 Scvember 1953.
51. Chief Chemical Officer request of -17 April 1959, Medical Officer
Responsible for Volunteers. 13 June 1959 approval by Under Secretary, Army.
52. Chemical R&D Letter to Commanding General, Chemical R&D Command , sub-
ject: Medical Officer Responsible for Volunteers, dated 17 July 1962.
53. Chemical R&D Leccer to Commanding General, R&D Command, subject as
52, above, dated 20 March 1963.
54. Army Materiel Command Letter of Appoincmenc, Medical Officer Responsible
for Volurtceers , dated 25 September 1963.
55. Army Regulation 70-25, Research and Development Use of Volunteers as
Subjects of Research, dated 31 July 1974.
56. Joint Medical -Chemical agreement to conduct Research and Development,
signed bv Major Generals Hays and Creasy in August 1958.
57. Joint Medical-Chemical agreement to conduct Research and Development,
signed by Major Generals Hays and Scubbs in March 1959.
53. Joint .Army Medical Service— Army Materiel Command agreement on Responsi-
bilities for the Conduct of R&D Defense Against CG Agents, signed by
General 3esaon and Lieutenant General Heacon on 23 January 1963.
59. Memorandum of Agreement, Army Materiel Cor- aid-The Surgeon General,
cf August 1972.
60. Si im ary Sheet, subject: Project Manager for Agent EA 2277, dated
13 April 1962.
61. Secretary of the Army Memorandum to Secretary of Defense, subject;
Use of Chemical Agent 32, dated 20 June 1962.
62. Department of Defense Instruction Number 5160.5, subject: Responsi-
bilities for Research and Development, Test and Evaluation on Chemical
and Biological Weapons and Defense , dacad 7 February 1964.
63. Department cr Defense Instruction Number 5030.29, subject: Investi-
gational Use of Drugs by DOD, dated. 12 May 1964.
64. Army Regulation 40-7, Clinical Use of Investigational Drugs, dated
13 November 1964.
65. Army regulation 40-7, Clinical Use cf Investigational Drugs, dated
21 July 196 7; superseded on 30 September 1969 and 4 April 1975.
66. Edgevood Arsenal Letter to The Surgeon General, subject: Physiological
Scress Aspects of Chemical Agents , dacsd 19 June 1969.
67. 26 August 1969 the Surgeon General Indorsement to Chief, Research and
Development, Department of the Army.
63. 3 September 1969 Chief, Research and Development , Indorsement to
The Surgeon General.
69. 12 September 1969 The Surgeon General Indorsement to Edgevood Arsenal.
70. 3iooedical Laboratory Letter to The Surgeon General, subject: Plan
for Glvcolate Agents, dated 6 March 1972.
71. Sews Release from Office, Chief of Information, Department of the
Army, dated 28 July 1975.
72. Prepared statement by Lieutenant General Taylor, The Surgeon General,
Department of the Army, before the Subcommittee on Administrative Practice
and Procedure of the Judiciary Committee, 10 September 1975.
73. Secretary of the Army Memorandum for Commander, U.S. Army Materiel
Command, subject: Medical Officer Responsible for Volunteers, dated
9 Septeaiber 1974.
OLA? TEX V
SUriAtf VOLuNTEER SELECTION AND SCXESSING
Tne purpose of this chapter is to address the implementation of Che
Human Volunteer Program, co include recruiting and the thoroughness
of the medical screening of volunteers.
As* mentioned previously, volunteers ha-ve served the medical element of
the L : .S. Army Chemical Research and Development Laboratories since the
establishment of the Medical Division in 19 22. 1 Records indicated chat
prior to World "Jar II the volunteers were employees of Edgevood Arsenal
who usually were part of the various research test projects. During
World War II there was large— scale use of volunteers at various test
sites throughout the United States. Following World War II human
volunteer resources were apparently met as they were prior to the war,
i.e., by local assigned personnel. This was Che case until Hay 1935
vfres the first contingent of the formal volunteer program arrived at
Zcgevcoc. 4 - Very little is known about the recruiting methods, medical
screening procedures, and utilization of the volunteers prior to 1955;
nor was it determined if this void was the result or routine destruction
of records or if there were simply fewer and less complete records main-
tained. It is probable thac the Nuremberg Trials had a significant
impact on the thoroughness with which research records were maintained .
As discussed in Chapcer IV, che Armed Forces Medical Policy Council
established the rules of che Nuremberg Code as an essential part of
future medical research involving the use of human subjects when in
1952 they recommended that the Secretary of Defense permit the use of
humans in medical research.
Secretary cf Defense Wilson's memorandum to the service secretaries in
February 1953 established the procedures to obtain authority to conduct
research with chemical agents involving human volunteers. However,
program initiative still rested with Che laboratory. It was che
responsibility of the research investigator to justify the need to use
humans in experimentations. There was evidence that chis responsibility
was not new to che Chemical Corps medical invescigacors , nor was it taken
lightly. In fact, months before the Secretary of che Army had approved
implementing instructions, che Chemical Corps Advisory Council was
considering the impact of che new requirements the Muremberg Code
placed on them. On 20 and 21 March 1953 che Chemical Corps Advisory
Council met at Edgevood Arsenal Co consider these medical and related
problems. 3 The Council members noted that human experimentation within
Che "ractice or medicine had been conducted for a long period of cine,
although =S'j?l ly on severely ill patients '-'ho went co a doccor for help.
The Council scressed chac che probleos confroncing che Chemical Corps
were entirely different in chac experiments vould be performed on
ncrr.al , healthy individuals and subjecting then to a certain degree of
danger. Thus, -hey allowed that careful consideration had Co be given
and safeguards established in terms of che moral, echical, and technical
aspects of che problem of using humans. They reported chac basic deci-
sions would have to be made regarding che type of experimental work
vhich was feasible and correct; che rules of conduce vhich would be
followed to creace che maximum safeguards; and che procedures which
would be established co decermine whether che information co be obtained
would justify che risk, involved. Following chese consideracions chey
reported that che practical problem of hew co ob cain a steady flow of
human volunteers would have to be addressed.
The Council (which consisted of both military and nonmiiicary members)
discussed numerous problem areas, many of which are prevalent today.
The Chairman of che Council (a civilian medical doctor) opined chat
"cercain problems must be considered more adequately if normal sub-
jects are to be used in experiments, che purpose of which is noc co
benefit the subject or people with disease, buc co aid in military
matters. The experimenter in each ins cance muse be a physician, and,
in view af the moral and echical practices embodied in che Hippocracic
Oath, 1- will be extremely difficult for che physician co judge, in an
unbiased manner, the type of experiment Co be performed and whac che
possible hazards are co the paciemc. From chac poir.c of view, coc-
sideracion muse be given co methods of choosing experimencal subjects ,
what regulations govern the divulging of information to volunteer sub-
jects as co che hazard involved, and whether or noc chac should, in
any way. be che responsibility of che physician directly involved in
the experiment." They also discussed che need co define "nor.hazardous"
experiments and chose which may be hazardous co a degree and which would
be considered iine-of-ducy (such as croop gas chamber exercises). The
Council also recognized che need for a clear and overall sec of funda-
mental principles, so chac a proposed plan for experimencacion could
be evaluated in terms of those criteria, thereby avoiding individual
decisions which would evencually resulc in a wide range of standards.
Although there was no direct evidence co indicate che impact thac chis
Council had on formuiacing future policy, ic is apparent from che sub-
ject matter discussed thac chey had considerable expertise in che field
of chemical and medical research, especially as ic would involve human
volunceers. The implemencing authority, Chief of Staff Memorandum 385,
for use of volunteers in research was published by che Army Chief of
Scaff on 30 June 1953. a This document sec forth eleven basic principles
for che use of human volunteers in research:
a. The vcluacary cor_seoc of che human subject ts absolutely eaaen-
cial and cuac be obtained ia writing with a proper witness.
b. The experiment xuac.be such as co yield results essential co
che Army oc for Che good of society, unprocurable by ocher aethods.
c. The experiment Euac be baaed on animal experimentation and knowl-
edge of "he problem ac chac che anticipated results vill justify performance
of che experiment.
d. The BUBber of aedicai volunteers used shall be the ?"*-•< -^t—
requi~ed co obtain che easeatial data.
e. The experiment will be conducted so as co avoid all unnecessary
physical and aental suffering and injury.
f. No experiment vill be conducted if there is any reason co believe
chac death or disabling injury may occur.
g. Proper precautions will be mace and adequate facilities provided
co prccecc che medical volunteer againsc all foreseeable possibilities of
injury, disability, or death.
h. The experiment will be conducted only by scientifically qualified
persons and the medical care of the volunteers supervised by a qualified
i. The physician iri charge rust be prepared to terminate che experi-
ment at any stage if he has any cause to believe concinuacion nay result
in injury, disability, or death.
'<. The medical volunteer cust be informed that ac any cine during
ztit course of che experiment he has the right to revoke his consenc and
withdraw from che experimenc, without prejudice.
1. Use of prisoners of war in human experimentacion is prohibiced
under any circumstances.
The greatest emphasis in terms of detailed guidance was placed on the
first of these principles, i.e., volunteer consent, which will be dis-
cussed ir, depth ia Chapter 71.
A request co conduct experiments with nerve gases on volunteers was sub-
mitted ia August 1953. Permission was granted in November 1953, however,
ic did not provide for a source of volunteer subjects. On 12 March 1954
The Surgeon General prepared a sec of principles, policies, and rules for
for :he use of human volunteers in medical research. With four exceptions,
these principles generally were che same as chose published In Chief of
Staff Memorandum 385. The firsc rule was in che form of expanded guidance
regarding volunteer consenc. Next, rules 7 and 8 of che Chief of Scaff
Memorandum 385 guidance were expanded as follows: "Adequate preparacions
should be made and adequate facilicies provided to procecc che experimental
subject againsc eveo remote possibilities of injury, disability or deach.
This includes hcsoltailzation and medica l treatment as nay be required .
Toe experiment should be conducted only by sciencifically qualified persons
( including an adequately trained physician ) who shall be required to exer-
cise the highest degree of skill 'i~.fi care throughout the experiment.
Competent consuJ "Unts should be a-vailabie on short notice in this connec-
tion." Finally, there was included an additional rule: "Agents used ia
research must have the following limiting characteristics: controllable
lethality; no serious chronocity anticipated; effective therapy available;
and adequate background or 3r--fTa«T experimentations." these were not
intended to replace the rules set forth in the basic policy (Chief of
Staff Memorandum 385), but rather to clarify their intent.*
?rior to this, in April 1953, the Chemical Corps Advisory Council recom-
mended a s-stem be developed to provide a pool of volunteers for chemical
warfare research at the Army Chemical Center (Sdgewood Arsenal). ° This
problem was again discussed by the Medical Committee of the Chemical Corps
Advisory Council on 30 September 195**. The report of that meeting indi-
cated a request for a continuing supply of volunteer subjects had been
submitted to che Office of the Secretary of the Army and che official in
charge of manpower in the Office of the Secretary of the Amy had expressed
approval of the request, thus, favorable action was reportedly anticipated
in time to have volunteers available by January 1955. I" was further recor-
ded chat if such military volunteers were ace supplied, the Medical Labora-
tories would have to continue obtaining a sporadic source of volunteers,
both military and civilian, from the personnel of the Army Chemical Center.
This comment was attributed to the Chief of the Clinical Research Division,
Medical laboratories, and is interpreted to mean that between che time
formal approval for the use of volunteers was granted in November 1953
and tie time of the Committee meeting (September 195^), volunteers were
recruited from personnel assigned to Edgewood Arsenal. There were no
volunteer medical records found which would corroborate this assumption.
However, witoesses contacted during the inquiry stated such records normally
were r.ot kept for volunteers from the laboratory.
The Crmmiccee report also contained a scacemenc that: "The laboratories
drev up a formal program and submitted it to che Secretary of the Army
for approval (referring to che 7 August 1953 request for approval to test
nerve agents in humans ) ; approval for the plan had been received (referring
to the 5 November 1953 approval by Secretary Stevens)." This program
reportedly visualized four types of studies for human volunteers. "Tne
first category consists of planned, hazardous experiments where there is
a clear-cut risk, but with intelligent , adequate supervision, safeguards,
and adequate therapy available, it Is felt that no irrevocable damage
will be done. Experiments will not be attempted where such damage can
be foreseen. These form the type of experiments for which Che Army
Secretary's approval has been received and the only kind where such
approval is required. Another category includes risk of accidental
exposure to hazardous degree. The fullest possible studies should be
made of any such unplanned exposures. The third category consists of
experiments that are only potentially but not definitely hazardous.
The experiments would be hazardous if Che individual, despite previous
examination and check-up, should prove unusually sensitive, or if there
occurs an accidental error or break in technique. The fourth category
of procedures will be those designated non-hazardous, experiments
involving no hazard greater chan chat of crossing a highway."'
Preparation for Volunteer Recruitment
On 13 October 1956 the Commander of the Chemical Corps Medical Research
Laboratories submitted a request to the Commanding General, Chemical
Corps Research and Engineering Command to establish a procedure for Che
recruitment of military volunteers for use in medical research asso-
ciated with chemical warfare. 8 This request recommended establishment
of an Army-wide volunteer recruitment program that would provide the
Medical Research Laboracory a conxiiuious flow of 20 voiunceers oer
month. The request was forwarded Co the Chief Chemical Officer, Depart-
ment of the Army, on 13 October 1954. Based on a recommendation from
the Office of The Surgeon General, the Medical Research Laboratory's
proposal was disapproved in favor of a less expensive plan.^ The
alternate plan suggested that specific installations, such as Tort
Meade, be contacted and the groundwork laid, through The Surgeon
General' 5 representative at each station, to obtain approval of the
local commander Co recruic volunteers from his installation. On
25 January 1955 the Army Chemical Center (Edgevood Arsenal) published
the first known Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) dealing with mili-
tary volunteers for chemical warfare. u The stated purpose of this
memorandum was to outline the procedures for processing of military
volunteers for medical research conducted at Che Army Chemical Center
by the Chemical Corps Medical Laboratories. The directive provided for
the recruitment of volunteers from Second Army Headquarters at Fort
lleade, MD , for temporary ducy (TDY) ac Edgewood Arsenal. The volun-
teers were :o oe provided adminiscracive support, rations, quarters,
and supplies upon arrival. Fallowing these arrangements , volunteers
were scheduled for physical examination and oriencaticn relative Co
Che test program. The directive also allowed the Medical Laboratory
staff to retain the volunteer for observation and treatment beyond che
normal attachmeor, if accessary. No mencion was made of the details of
the physical/mental e-amlnationa co be given prior co che volunteer's
acceptance into the program or, of a follow-up examination at the comple-
tion of his temporary duty.
Records found at Sdgevood Arsenal indicated that during the period 9-23
January 1955 the Chemical Corps Medical Research Laboratories and the
Aero Medical Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, conducted a
joint research project at Wright-Patterson Air Force 3ase to investigate
"Carbon Monoxide Gassing of *fr— an Volunteers."-- No authority for the
conduce of this experiment was fou™d during the inquiry. If approval
was not sought because the test vas considered "only potentially, but
not definitely hazardous," and thus according to the earlier interpre-
tation not requiring Secretary of the Amy approval, it would have indi-
cated, as a minimum, a propensity towards a liberal interpretation of
policy. Also, it is possible that approval was obtained through U.S.
a* t rorcs channels, although no records of this were retained or found
in the laboratory files. However, records were found which indicated
that the Amy Medical Laboratories supplied 10 volunteer subjects for
the project; individual medical records for these volunteers were not
In lace February 1955 the Medical Research Laboratories began their
preparation for recruiting volunteers from Fort H&ade by furnishing an
information letter to the installation indicating the type of test planned
for use of volunteers.-- The volunteers were advised that three types of
investigations would be conducted:
a. The minimum systemic and local effects of certain toxic agents,
wnich would involve inhalation of snail amounts of nerve gas. The docu-
ment allowed that volunteers would be thoroughly informed about all
procedures and what was to be ercpected during each test; every precaution
would be taken to protect the volunteer against danger or serious discom-
fort; and physicians and other scientists who had previously been volunteer
subjects would be in attendance at all times.
b. The evaluation of chemical warfare equipment, such as the test-
ing cf chemical items designed to protect the individual soldier. Testing
of this equipment required wearing trials before the items were standardized
o. investigations involving the problems of adapting defensive items
to aacurai human capacitiea, such as a manual dexterity test using pro-
tective gloves. Moreover, each volunteer was co be free co decermine
whether or not he desired to participate after he received a full explana-
tion of che test procedure and he was to be free to terminate his 30-day
temporary duty tour at any time.
Included wiCi - info ...sat ion letter referenced above _s a doc .t
titled: "Medical Research Volunteer Program," which *Jas intended to be
maiidatcr-' reading for all volunteers, and an acknowledgement chat it had
been read and understood was included la che "Human Volunteer Agreement"
form. Ac che same wine, che Medical Laboratory escabllshed an "Indoctri-
nation and Screening Teas" of two Chemical Corps officers and oae medical
officer co be responsible for selecting che qualified individuals from
a=on£ the volunteers. The appointment of this team and other arrangements
were made as a result of a commitment by 2nd Army Headquarters Co provide
20 volunteers per 30-day period to che extent possible. ^- J The letter also
announced that the orientation and identification of individuals under
consideration for selection would be accomplished only by personnel
assigned to the Chemical Corps Research and Engineering Command, further,
2nd Army would transmit and provide for exploitation of the preliminary
recruiting material provided by the Chemical Corrs. Additionally, 2nd
Army would assemble prospective volunteers, as requested, for detailed
orientation and final screening. However, 2nd Army would not engage
directly in any aspect c£ the orientation and screening process. Avail-
able records indicated that during March and April 1955 Chemical Corps
Medical Research laboratories personnel developed a program in conjunction
with Headquarters, 2nd Army, representatives and the chiefs of the various
technical services (Quartermaster General, Chief of Engineers, etc.) to
recruit, screen, and select volunteers from the 2nd Army area. 0a 21 April
1955 Headquarters, 2r>d U.S. Army, published a directive to the installation
commanders in its Army area establishing procedures for selecting volun-
teers.- - The directive provided that when, finally selected, rhe vciuncaer
would be placed on TUT to Edgevcod Arsenal for 30 days. The requirement
for volunteers was established as 20 per month. The directive provided
that when sufficient nominations were received, an orientation team from
the Chemical Corps Research and Development Command would conduct a brief-
ing for the volunteers. Those who scill remained after the briefing would
be requested to sign a volunteer participation agreement.
No direct evidence of che type medical and psychological examination given
to these early participants was available, however, some newspaper articles
published during the recruiting effort were located; they indicated that
preliminary examinations were planned for volunteers. In March 1955 the
Baltimore Evening Sun and the News-Post published articles about the up-
coming experiments.-- 1 In these articles it was reported that the volun-
teers would be carefully screened for physical and psychological suitability
icr to testing. In April 1955 a similar article appeared in the Armv
Times - which reported that "All volunteers would be screened carefully
by three different group3 to determine their physical and psychological
suitability." The three groups, although not further identified, probably
were: (1) the military unit, where potential volunteers were screened to
insure they met the initial selection prerequisites: Intelligence (ApCi-
tude Area I Score of 80 or above), completion of basic military training.
physical profile (a general health racing established from medical examina-
tion and recorded 1= the individual medical records), age group of 17 co
35, remaining service of ac lease six months, and have an organization and
Army official record which contained no adverse information; (2) the orien-
tation team mentioned earlier chat met with Che volunteers after inicial
screening and prior selection for travel Co Che Medical Research Labora-
tories; and (3) Che doccors who examined che volunteers at che Laboratories
prior to parcicipacion in experiments .
First Formal Volunteers froc; Second Armv
The first contingent of 16 soldiers from Second Army Headquarters was
reported co have arrived at the Army Chemical Center an er this program
on 2 May 19 55.* A computer printouc, based on data available from indi-
v-iduai volunceer medical records, indicated that the first experimental
use of these volunteers occurred on 20 May 1955." A sampling of che
available volunteers' records revealed chac z'^e medical examination of
these early volunteers included: a standard report of medical examina-
tion; report of medical history; chest X-ray; urinalysis test; and an
zJ.G recording- Many of the records, however, were incomplete in chac
they did not reflect the type of chemical agenc administered to che volun-
teer, the method of administration of the drug, or che dosage given. It
also was apparent th.ac the original plan for medical evaluation of che
volunteers did not include a final or exit type physical examination for
the volunteers. However, arrangements to correct chis oversight were made
prior to Che departure of che group chac arrived in May 1955.-° the exit
examination provided during che 1955 Cine period appeared co consist of
a chest X-ray and an exit interview. There was an indication that che
purpose of che interview may have been for an evaluation of che volunteer's
attitude in order co reinforce future recruiting efforts, racher than eval-
uation of his total medical well-being.
Volunteers from chis source continued to arrive at tagewood, during the
remainder or 1955, from Fort Knox, KY, Fort Meade, MD , and Fort Monmouth,
NJ. ° Approximately 140 volunteers were received during 1955. The avail-
able records of these volunteers, which were, in most cases, incomplete,
indicated that they received a medical examination, signed a volunteer
statement (although oot available in all cases), and were used in experi-
mentations involving nerve and mustard gases and perhaps other agents.
However, by June 1956 the number of volunteer subjects from Second Army
and the various technical service installations dwindled to five or six
per month. The Medical Research Laboratory stated that despite their
vigorous efforts in recruicment of volunteers, croop commanders did not
place sufficient priority on che program. They argued that Department of
the Army should compel troop commanders to release volunteers despite
shortages in other critical areas. With che inclusion of psycho chemical
cocipound experimentation in 1956, the medical screening was expanded co
iociudt* a social history Interview and che Minnesota Multiphasic Per-
sonal! tv Inventory (MM?I) to exclude chose voiunceers who might react
adversely under sicuacions of psychological stress. Although available
records were not sufficiently^ complete to determine exactly when these
tests were Included, ic appears they were being employed in early 1957
and oerhaps late 1956, when Che first volunteer records clearly indicated
Che use of LSD on volunteers.
Ccntinencai Am v -Wide Recruitment
In April 1957 the recruiting base --as expanded co include all Amy installa-
tions within Che United Scaces.^O The Department of the Amy di ectad Amy
commanders co assist in the recruitment of volunteers and to release a mini-
mum of 30 per month on a rotating basis the six Amy commanders were
each given tvo months per year in which they would furnish voiunceers) .
The tern "Recruitment" was defined in other publications- as: "restricted
to publicizing the program, accepting applications, and selecting a quota
from ocong those who applied." No coercion or enticenenc of volunteers
was permitted. The April 1957 directive held that: "The voluntary con-
sent of the human subject is absolutely essential. This means chat the
person involved should have leg3l capacity Co give consent; should be so
situated as to be able to exercise free power of choice without the inter-
vention of any element of force, fraud, deceit, duress, over-reaching, or
ether ulterior form of constraint or coercion." Ic further provided that:
"In ail experiments involving volunteer test subjects, the individuals are
thoroughly informed about all procedures, and what can be expected during
each test." The Army commanders were asked to emphasize the program within
their commands and to stress such natters as: the need for volunteers;
thorough physical examinations; awareness of the application process;
necessity of a volunteer agreement statement; quality of accommodations \
at che Edgewcod Arsenal test site; a liberal pass policy for volunteers; =
availability of letters of commendation for volunteer service; snd che
availability of temporary duty (TDx) pay (SI. 50 per day) to volunteers.^
The renewed emphasis placed on the recruiting of volunteers from all Army
areas vithin the united States was apparencly productive as the total
volunteers received in 1957 was reported as 298 as compared to 100 for
1956-2- Total volunteers for 1953 was reported as 383.1 During this
period (1955-1953) only two volunteers were reported as "physically
unqualified . "1 »-l It must be noted chac official and unofficial docu-
ments discovered during che inquiry differ (in some instances considerably)
in reporting che number of voiunceers, and ail figures are reported as che
best evidence available racher Chan as absolute .figures .
la late 19 57 che Air rorce agreed to furnish volunteers to the Chemical
Corps. Records indicated chat chis practice continued uncil July 1961
and included approximately 350 airmen. -
During 19 58 , ir. addition to tne normal clinical experiments conducted ac
r d:e , -ood Arsenal, "field tests" were conducted with volunteers troc
"ort 3ragg ar.d Fort Holaoird . CA These cases will be discassea in sep-
arate chapters of this report.
Recapitulation of Volunteer Utilization - 1962
3y the end of June 1962 reports indicated 2,538 volunteers had been used
at Edgevood since 1955; approximately 350 of these '-ere Air Force person-
nel. 1 During the same period, 49 volunteers --ere reported as physically
unqualified; 61 had requested release from the program; 35 were reportedly
returned to their units for disciplinary reasons; and 6 had refused to
participate in the program after arrival at Edgevood." Figures available
for the "use of volunteers" showed that III were used in lethal agent tests;
2~" in incapacitating agent tests; 13Z in miscellaneous physiological tests;
and ^9" in material tests.
y^dtzzl Evaluation of Volunteer Subjects
Reports reflected Chat by 1962 volunteers spent their first three days at
Edzewooc receiving what was termed the most thorough physical examination
they ever had. The examination, which was conducted by a physician, in-
cluded chest X-ray, electrocardiogram, tests of liver and kidney function,
as well as hematological tests (blood studies) . The MM?I (Minnesota Multi-
phasic Personality Inveccory) was reportedly giver, to all volunteers and
scored by a psychologist or psychiatrist to determine behavior patterns
of the volunteers. Successful completion of these tests qualified the
subject for use in experiments with anticholinesterase compounds (nerve
agents), riot control agents, somie therapeutic drugs, and tests of pro-
tective material (which often did not involve drugs) . If the volunteer
passed these tests, he was given an electroencephalograph test, a per-
sonal interview with a psychiatrist, and a blood chemistry analysis .
To be eligible for psychotropic drug experiments the volunteer had to
successfully complete ail screening tests.
Post-1962 Recruiting Procedures
In March 1962 the basic guidance for "Use of Volunteers as Subjects of
Research" was published In AR 70-25. In July 1962 The Adjutant General,
Headquarters, Department c£ the Army, published a letter to the Commanding
General, U.S. Continental Army Command (CONARC) , subject: use of Volun-
teers in Research, authorizing procurement of volunteers by recruiting
from the Zone of Interior (ZI) Army areas for temporary duty periods of
60 days." The screening process was changed somewhat at this time. Army
area conimanders would select the major installation in their area where
volunteers would be recruited. The poet commander would survey his troops
for pocentiai volunteers, following which, a Chemical Corps recruiting
team, vcuid arrive ac Che post: and present a briefing to an assembly of
as many as 500 enlisted personnel. A follow-up Chemical Corps team would
arrive later to review the medical histories of Che potential volunteers
and select 60 fron those considered nose eligible. The 60 men were placed
on TUT orders to Sdgevood Arsenal, where each volunteer again was given a
standard physical examination without regard Co the dace of his last exam-
ination. Obvious medical rejects vers dropped from the agent program lane—
diacei.7 after a disqualifying finding was determined. In addition to che
general physical exa— ination, volunceers received a complete hemogram,
urinalysis, serology, chest 2-ray, EKG, EEG, liver and renal function
batteries, psychological cest3, and a psychiatric interview. The final
selection of volunteers for the agent program was made by a board of
medical officers who were permicted to reject volunteers who otherwise
mec all qualifications if,, in their judgment, che subject should not be
used. One report held that as of 15 December 1963, 2,363 volunteers had
been available and were used izx 2,279 exposures of 90 chemical agents. ^
These figures, although from official reports, cannot be considered abso-
lute since they are in conflict with other official publications, anc in
seme cases vary as much as 27X (Poocnoce 24 indicated chat there were 218
volunteers available m 1957, while the publicacioa in Footnote 1 showed
298 volunteers for the same period).
Recsrds indicated chat this volunteer selection system was still in use
in July 1966 when the Commander of Edgewood Arsenal reported that, as of
1 July 1966, a total of 4,360 volunteer test subjects had been utilized
in the medical research program ac Edgewood Arsenal with no deaths, no
injuries, and no observable residual effects. 25 on 17 January 1967 The
Adjutant General, Department of the Army, again directed the Commanding
General of the Continental Army Command to provide volunteers to Edgewood
Research Laboratories." This letter provided for the volunteers (average
of i0 per monch for 60 days TDY) to be medically screened by their station
surgeon if a team from Edgewood could noc be made available for that pur-
pose. Otherwise, the directive was similar to those published previously.
Evaluation of Volunteers for Use In Psvchochemicals
Available historical records located during the research effort indicated
that a comprehensive set of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) was
available within Che Clinical Research Departmenc of che Medical Research
Laboratories. One of these SOPs, published in 1963, dealt with "volunteer
screening and selection" and provided detailed guidance for the psycho-
logical/psychiatric selection of volunteers. 27. j; c provided guidance for
screening the medical history of the volunceer, evaluation of his general
aptitude COT Score), the MMPI test, family history, and other data. The
final result of the screening process was Co place each volunteer in a
category c efuin j. A racing °£ "A" aeant the lunteei cleared
roc peycincr-emicai testing ; "3" aear.c he could receive a low-uose of pcy-
chochemicais only; "C" aeant ao psychochemicais could be uaad on tha volun-
teer; and '*D" aeant the volunteer could be uaed for equipment taata only.
Re— 2*/ 6.1 n ation of Volunteer Requirement - 1973
la general, the process of Army area cci — a^r.ers providing up to 500 per-
sonnel for orientations/briefings conducted by a team frco Edgevood
IrsenaJ. continued through 1973, when Aray organisational changes caused
. a re— evaluation of the method of recruitment. However, the screening and
selection process for determining which volunteers qualified for use in
which experiments remained about the same.
A -review of the volunteer aedical record files revealed that ao records
were retained for the period prior to Kay 1955, it, in fact, records were
prepared at all then; and that from 1955 through 1953 aost of the records
were inadequate and incomplete. Gradual improvement was noted in both
record completeness and the aedical screening process starting isi 1959.
There were some notable exceptions to this general improvement trend; one
such exception was evident in the comparison of official reports for the
yea'r I960, which indicated that in excess of 500 volunteers were used at
the Medical Research Laboratories. However, only approximately 40 volun-
teer records actually indicated that a cheaicai agent was administered.
Other exceptions to good record keeping and aedical screening processing
were apparent in the lack of records concerning the nilitary intelligence
drug testing program conducted at Edgevood during 195S-1960, and to a
lesser extent, the "field teats" conducted at Forts 3ragg, 3enning, and
McCielian. These will be discussed individually in later chapters.
The reorganisation of- the Aray, to include formation of the Training and
Doctrine Ccmmand (TRADOC) sn d the Military Personnel Center Ccnraand
(MIL?S3CiS) ia 1973, required the Medical Research Laboratories to renew
their efforts to obtain volunteers. ~^ At the request of the Office of
:he Chief of Research and Development, Department of the Army,™ the
3ic=edical Laboratory (formerly Medical Research Laboratories) submitted
a justification to continue the selection process in a aanner similar to
methods used prior to the reorganization, i.e., have the area or post
commanders assemble troops for orientation and briefing (installations
to be selected by the newly formed T3AD0C); and continue to have the
initial screening process to preselect approximately 30 (formerly 60)
volunteers for temporary duty at Edgewood Arsenal, where the second
screening process would continue to take place. Additionally, the
period of TDT was requested to be raised from 60 to 90 days to allow
for better utilization of the volunteers. ^9
As of 30 June 1973 records reflected that 6,408 different volunteers had
been used in medical research by Che Biomedical Laboratory for a total of
6,709 volunteer tours (this includes repeat tours). -^
It appeared that the change la Army organization did have an effect on
the Biomedical laboratory's recruiting efforts, although not immediately.
By January 1974 there were ao volunteers available and It appeared it
would take six months to reinitiate the Laboratory's systematic selection
process. -^^ Volunteer records Indicated that Che program was again in
operation by May 1974 ; 22 it continued until 28 July 1975 when the Acting
Secretary of che Army directed a temporary suspension of all testing of
chemical compounds at Ecgewood Arsenal using human volunteers.
- _ CHAPTER V
_' 1. CITL Special Publication 2-51. Evolution of the U.S. Arsiy Clerical
Research and Development Laboratories Medical Research Volunteer Progran,
published in November 1962.
2. Briefing text, Human Investigation Facility, Directorate of Medical
Research, ".£, Amy Chemical Research and Development Laboratories,
Edgewcod Arsenal, SD, 1963.
3. AC-723 Chanical Corps Advisor-- Council, Medical and Related Problems
Committee Meeting, 20-21 March 1953.
£. Chief of Staff Merr.orar.durj for Chief Chenical Officer and The Surgeon
General (CS:385), subject: Use of Volunteers in Research, dated 30 June
5. Principles, Policies and Rules of the Office of The Surgeon General,
dated 12 March 1954.
6. AC 727 Chemical Corp<= Advisory Council Meeting, 23-25 April 1953.
— " 7. AC(55)S-303 Medical Committee, Che=icai Corps Advisory Council,
30 September and 1 October 1954, published in September 1955.
'* _~ 8. Letter, subject: Recruitment of Volunteers for Research Experi-
mentation, from the Chemical Research and Engineering Command to the
Chief Chemical Officer, Department of che Army, dated 13 October 1954.
9. Same as Footnote 19.
10. Memorandum Number 11, Military Volunteers, dated 25 January 1955.
11. Letter, subject: Appreciation for Cooperation in CO Studies, fror*.
C-hemicai Corps Medical Laboratories to Commanding General, s'ADC, Wright-
_ Patterson Air Force 3ase r dated I February 1955.
12. Letter, subject: Recruitment of Military Volunteers, dated 24 February
13. Letter, subject: Recruitment of Military Volunteers, from Second
Army Co Commanding General, Chemical Corps Research and Engineering
Command, Army Chemical Center, MD , daced 4 February 1955.
li. Letter, subject: Enlisted Volunteers for Chemical Corps Medical
Laboratories, from HQ , Second Army, to Co-Harder, Class I and II
Xnstallacions, dated 21 April 1955.
15- News Article, The Evemlag Sun , Baltimore, Karen 28, 1955, "Chemical
Device tests Stated." ,.
i6. Hevs Article, Array Tije3 , April 2, 1955, "Army to test Hev Poisons,
Equipment on 20 Volunteers."
17. Computer printout of 9 January 1976 from Biomedical Laboratory,
Edgevood Arsenal, of years, agent, dose, and dace of administration.
18. Disposition Form, dated 19 May 1955, subject: Human Volunteers,
from Chief, ?&£ Office, Medical Research Laboratories, to Asst/TCV
Medical Research Laboratories.
19. Memorandum for Commanding General, CMC C RDCOM, subject: Recruit-
ment of Volunteers for G» Research, dated 6 September 1956.
20. Letter Directive, subject: Use of Volunteers in Research, from
Department or the Army, Adjutant General, to Commanding Generals, 21
Armies, dated 18 April 1957.
21. CBt Special Publication 2-13, U.S. Army Chemical Warfare Laboratories
Report on the Medical Research Volunteer Program, printed June 1958.
22. Meeting of the Medical Committee, U.S. Army Chemical Corps Advisory
Council, 3-i November 1953.
23. Briefing notes of 1962, titled, "Volunteer Program at CRDL . "
3riefing by Major General Scubbs to Deputy Secretary of Defense.
2^. 3rieiir.g tea:t 1963, Human Investigation Facility, Directorate of
Medical Research, U.S. Army Chemical Research and Development Labora-
tories, Edgevood Arsenal, MD. Title, "Volunteer Program."
23. Letter regarding "Use of Volunteers as Subjects of Research," dated
29 July 1966, from Commander, Edgevood Arsenal, to Commanding General,
U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command.